My wife was working at the Loyola University so I spent the day in Cordoba and checked out the Cordoba bus and train station. The bus station is just behind the train station.
I tested out the information desk by asking what bus I needed to take me back to the Mezquita (It’s the number 3 and the nearest point is San Fernando almost down by the Guadalquivir River) I was not given the departure point but found it for myself at the furthest end of the local bus stops between the bus station and the Cordoba train station. Cost €1.10 all the way back to the Mezquita. Good value and the bus was clean and comfortable.
There are 26 long distance bus bays arranged in a circle on the far side of the bus station. Cordoba bus station is functional and perhaps does not have the same charm of the Prado de San Sebastian bus station in Seville but is ideally situated for connections with train station and within very easy reach of the Cordoba city centre.
By the way the picture shows Cordoba bus station on the right. I took the photo from the north corner of Cordoba train station which is just to my left. The local buses leave from the street you see here. Do let me know if I can help you with travel onwards from Cordoba to anywhere else in Spain.